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Sector 6 had twice as many Spanish speakers as any other sector in the survey. It presents language facts on maps.

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One of the most distinctive characteristics of Mexican Spanish is the abundance of words borrowed from the Indian languages of Mexico. Coverage of the entire state also brings in the metropolitan areas of Albuquerque, Las Cruces, and Santa Fe and other urban areas where the impact of both English and the Spanish of Mexico is particularly manifest.

At the same time, the westward U. Attesting to this association with Traditional Spanish, Pedrero58—59 reports 14 occurrences of this form and Alvarindicates that they were found only in New Mexico and southern Colorado—and in eleven of the fourteen communities there.

Its use is illustrated in exampleuttered by a sixty-three-year-old woman from Carriso, New Mexico, who was describing her first experience at a wake for a deceased relative: Developmental Sciencev18 n4 p Jul First, they had to have been born and raised in the survey gramagicario.

I am glad, however, to be able to speak two languages. Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America; Vol 2 ; We tap into some of gramaticsrio characteristics for analysis in this book, especially in part 4.

Turkeys were commonly domesticated by the Native Americans. Although guajolote is the dominant form in Mexico, the pavo label is documented widely and prominently in the Mexico atlas.


The fact that the U. There have been contradictory statements concerning its occurrence in Mexico. But each has more than 1 realization.

We can only conclude that struggling with a characterization of archaisms leads us down an unilluminating garden path. In short, beliefs about language reflect the usual societal inequalities, inequalities captured in seemingly universal fashion in the observation of a well-experienced ninety-six-year-old woman from northern New Mexico interview People is a useful label, a class of things distinct from bugs or horses or snakes.

Yet we frequently encounter other situations and other communities where our way of speaking feels different and inadequate. Earlier evidence for the development of a partial null subject grammar. After several hours [of the interview, she] indicated that I had overstayed my welcome. Map for torque which excludes the English turkey shows that the Anglicism is most definitely a characteristic of Traditional Spanish.

El Gramaticario : Maria del Pilar Gaspar :

All those who came to the New World arrived by spending a month or more on ships, and usually after having spent months in the port area awaiting departure. The archaic root appears to be more stigmatized than the regularized suffix. For telling jokes and stories involving Mano Cacahuate and Mana Cebolla.

We will also have occasion to refer to non-Hispanic groups in the region. On the one hand, the seafaring enterprise and its occupational jargon permeated the experiences of those forebears of American Spanish. And approximately one-fifth of the region is comprised of Indian reservations.

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Institute of Education Sciences ED. It will be no surprise to find these forms, particularly the fully standard trajeron, to be associated with social factors such as years of education. Both occur in the real world as isolated individual things that need to be grouped into categories so that we can talk about them efficiently. Map suggests that the archaic use of recordar suffers from stigmatization.


The Spanish of the Americas reflects these two prominent features, which its speakers experienced in that early formative period away from home.

El Gramaticario

Our desire has been to share with all kinds of readers gramaticaroo multitude of facts about New Mexican Spanish: A tiny minority, descendants of pre-twentiethcentury settlers, speaks a quite different variety, which Juan M. Its use in the spoken language, however, must have been initiated earlier. Its limited distribution on map supports this conclusion. However, it now finds itself on its last legs, not just endangered, but moribund. These transient activities, however, left few traces.

Rather than rely on any of the existing emotionally loaded terms, we have decided to adopt neutral labels associated loosely with geography. Consequently, every culture seems to hold dearly to beliefs that have little basis in reality.

A companion to Linguistic Anthropology. North of that latitude, on the other hand, the 2 forms together have become very much a minority lexical form.

Moreno de Alba, for example, notes that this archaism is a feature of rural Mexico a, Lerner reports widespread use in the New World. It was one of the most isolated settlements in the vast Spanish Empire.

For New Mexico, gallina de la tierra is evident from the earliest records. For this young woman, the desire yramaticario avoid such labeling led to the desire to deny Spanish. Bureau of the Census This book is about language and people. Our research owes a tremendous debt to the many other persons and institutions that have provided support and encouragement for our efforts.